Eye Cataract Surgery
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What is Cataract?
Cataracts refer to clouding of the eye’s natural lens, which is located behind the iris and pupil. The eye’s lens, similar to a camera lens, focuses light onto the retina, located at the back of the eye.
Underlying causes of cataracts in the eye
Cataracts resulting from aging
Cataracts caused by aging are the most common type of cataracts. A significant percentage of people develop this type of cataract, and its prevalence increases with age.
Cataracts resulting from other diseases
This type of cataract is observed in individuals who have specific medical conditions, including diabetes (sugar disease). Sometimes, the occurrence of cataracts is associated with the long-term use of certain medications, such as prednisolone.
Cataracts resulting from injury
Sometimes, cataracts are seen immediately after eye injuries, while in other cases, they may develop years later.
Some children are born with cataracts, or they develop them in childhood, typically affecting both eyes.
The most common symptoms of cataracts
These symptoms can also be caused by other eye conditions, so if you experience any of these symptoms severely, be sure to consult an eye specialist.
For a proper diagnosis of cataracts, a comprehensive eye examination by a specialized ophthalmologist is necessary. The examinations performed by an eye specialist for an accurate diagnosis typically include the following:
The treatment for cataracts
Cataracts require surgery when they interfere with vision and daily activities like driving, reading, or watching television, and there is no need to wait for them to mature.
In cataract surgery, a small incision of about 3 millimeters is made to remove the cloudy lens. The cataract is broken up within the eye and then removed using suction. This procedure comes in two types:
which use ultrasound energy to break up the lens nucleus
It uses “laser” energy to break up the lens nucleus
In Iran, nearly 100% of cataract cases are treated using the “phacoemulsification ultrasound” method, commonly referred to as “phaco.” However, since laser surgery is widely believed to be highly precise, this method is sometimes referred to as the “laser method.”
If both eyes have cataracts, the doctor won’t perform surgery on them simultaneously. Each eye needs to undergo surgery separately.
Regarding anesthesia, with the advancements in surgical technology, there is no longer a need for general anesthesia. The surgery can be performed with local anesthesia, either through anesthesia drops or injections.
The most advanced surgical method in the world is phacoemulsification surgery using local anesthesia. This method doesn’t require general anesthesia or the use of injection anesthesia. The surgery typically takes about ten minutes, and there is no need for eye bandages. Patients are discharged immediately after the surgery and can return to their regular activities and daily life the next day.
Simultaneous treatment of cataracts and presbyopia
In the past, cataract surgery involved removing the cataract and prescribing thick eyeglasses to compensate for the refractive error it caused. Gradually, with the invention of intraocular lenses and the development of precise formulas for calculating the power of these intraocular lenses, people usually no longer needed eyeglasses for distance vision and only required them for near vision or specific tasks like reading or work.
Subsequently, with the invention of new cataract surgery methods such as “phacoemulsification” (often called “phaco”) and methods for correcting astigmatism, refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism could be corrected simultaneously during cataract surgery.
Most people over the age of 40 often experience the need for reading glasses or feel that they require them to read and see objects up close. These changes in the eye’s lens are referred to as “presbyopia.”
Post-cataract surgery instructions and care
پس از عمل جراحي آب مرواريد نكات زير بايد رعايت شود و تا ويزيت بعدي از انجام كارهاي زير خودداري نماييد.